Normal Blood Sugar, A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar, What Is Normal Blood Sugar, Diabetes In China .
The affected person is noticed for signs and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, eg, numbness or pain in the arms and ft, decreased vibratory sense, footdrop, and neurogenic bladder The urine is checked for microalbumin or overt protein losses, an .
Having A Parent With Type 2 Diabetes What To Know About Your Risk
early indication of nephropathy The combination of peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial illness ends in changes within the skin and microvasculature that result in ulcer formation on the feet and decrease legs with poor therapeutic.
Using milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood mg dL for measurement, excessive blood glucose readings after a meal indicating prediabetes can fall between 140 and 199 mg dL Levels reaching 200 mg dL two hours after consuming point out you might already be insulin resistant or diabetic, although that prognosis will need to come from your doctor By comparability, the everyday standard for regular glucose readings is to remain underneath a hundred and forty mg dL all through the Normal Blood Sugar Levels day and under a hundred mg dL after eight hours of fasting If blood sugar ranges drop too low, a potentially deadly condition called hypoglycemia develops This may be manifested as weak point, drowsiness, shaking, irritability, sweating etc.
Glucose levels rise after meals for an hour or two by a number of A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar grams and are often lowest in the morning, earlier than the primary meal of the day The morning ranges are the lowest because it follows around 6 to eight hours of fasting throughout the night The Guardian Connect System received its FDA approval in the 12 months 2018 The sensor is implanted under the pores and skin, and the transmitter is put in on the top.
GDM is recognized if fasting glucose meet or exceed 92 mg dl 51 mmol l , 1 What Is Normal Blood Sugar Level hour serum glucose of 180 mg dl 10zero mmol l or 2 hour serum glucose of A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar 153 mg dl 85 mmol l Another Flu shot make blood sugar low form of T1DM is latent autoimmune diabetes of adults It happens in adulthood, often with a slower course of onset Helping Others Manage Their Type 2 Diabetes Through her talk show The Impact with Robin Dorsey, this advocate for diabetes schooling helps others manage their disease, even saving lives Foot ulcers or infections resulting from circulation issues and nerve harm.
In addition, prediabetes is one other essential analysis that signifies an elevated danger of developing diabetes Diabetes mellitus is a gaggle of physiological dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia ensuing .
Symptoms Of Hyperglycaemia
directly from insulin resistance, insufficient insulin secretion, or excessive glucagon secretion Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder resulting in the destruction of pancreatic beta cells Type 2 diabetes , which is much more widespread, is primarily a problem of progressively impaired glucose regulation due to a mixture What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level of dysfunctional pancreatic beta cells and insulin resistance The objective of this article is to review the essential science of sort 2 diabetes and its problems, and to discuss the latest remedy tips The overarching goal of those efforts is to determine the genetic underpinnings of this illness and translate that data into clinical and therapeutic interventions.
In people with self reported diabetes, only fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c had been measured Type 1 diabetes is an immune system disease What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level with some genetic element This type of diabetes can t be reversed with traditional treatments Providing insulin via a synthetic pancreas is essentially the most superior way of maintaining glucose within a decent range at all times most intently mimicking the physique.
However, they do not seem to be going to be a whole remedy in your condition Blood sugar dietary supplements comprise a selection of elements While most supplements use berberine or cinnamon to reduce back your blood sugar ranges, this isn t A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar true for all dietary supplements Some use quite so much of other elements which have various ranges of effectiveness With a 100 satisfaction guarantee, there is not a purpose not to give this complement a strive.
You take these drugs with a needle to slow digestion and decrease blood sugar levels Some of the most common ones are exenatide , liraglutide , and semaglutide People with insulin resistance often have a bunch of situations together with excessive blood sugar, further fats around the waist, hypertension, and high cholesterol and triglycerides.
Exercise lowers your blood sugar degree by transferring sugar into your cells, the place it is used for energy Exercise additionally will increase your sensitivity to insulin, Can people without diabeteshave low blood sugar also which means your body needs less insulin to move sugar to your cells A fasting blood sugar degree lower than a hundred mg dL 56 mmol L is regular A fasting blood sugar degree from a hundred to 125 mg dL 56 to 69 mmol L is taken into account prediabetes If it is 126 mg dL 7 mmol L or higher on two separate checks, you may have diabetes.
If you ve diabetes, it is essential to keep your blood sugar, or glucose, ranges inside a healthy vary But importantly, it ll assist you to stay wholesome and prevent critical diabetes complications now and sooner or later By problems, we imply severe problems in places like your ft and your eyes This occurs as a result of too much sugar within the blood damages your blood vessels, making it tougher for blood to flow around your body This can result in very critical issues like sight loss and needing an amputation If you take sure medication, like insulin or sulphonylureas, checking your blood sugars is a crucial a half of dwelling with diabetes.
Kim graduated from Marquette University in 2009 with a twin degree in nursing and Spanish Her expertise includes behavioral health, oncology, telemetry, and ICU She currently works within the Cardiothoracic ICU at UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles, CA You can e mail the location proprietor to let them know you had been blocked Please embody what you have been doing when this page got here up and the Cloudflare Ray ID found at the bottom of this web page If you re pregnant and have diabetes, your targets will be completely different.
Many people with type 2 diabetes can handle their blood glucose ranges with food plan and exercise alone A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar Others might have diabetes tablets or insulin injections, together with medicines to handle different circumstances like hypertension and excessive cholesterol Over time, a person with diabetes may have each lifestyle adjustments and drugs 415 million folks reside with diabetes worldwide, and an estimated 193 million individuals have undiagnosed diabetes.
High glycemic index foods spike your blood sugar rapidly, while low GI meals have the least effect on blood sugar While the GI has lengthy been promoted as a device to assist handle blood sugar, there are some notable drawbacks As with any healthy eating program, a diabetic diet is extra about your total dietary sample somewhat than obsessing over specific foods Aim to eat more pure, unprocessed meals and fewer packaged and convenience meals.
If you re feeling shaky, sweaty, or very hungry, examine your blood sugar Even should you really feel none of these things, however think you may have low blood sugar, examine it Subcutaneous insulin injection supplies the quickest response as a end result of blood flow on the injection website accelerates insulin absorption Injecting it into the abdomen, arm, or deltoid is the most effective due to elevated blood circulate in these locations compared to different physique areas like the buttocks and thigh However, be aware that components A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar like smoking, obesity, and low bodily activity can lower a person s subcutaneous blood move and decelerate the absorption fee.
I suppose there is no simple resolution to this, however I m eager to know extra Our staff has been providing related and properly researched medical data since 2012 Increase his walking time to half hour every day after dinner If you feel very drained, thirsty, have blurry imaginative and prescient, or need to pee extra usually, your blood sugar may be excessive It is generally accepted that most people want about 4 to six A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar cups of water every day It can be not A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar appropriate for patients who ve asthma, energetic lung most cancers, or chronic obstructive pulmonary illness.
A blood pattern for a random plasma glucose take a look at may be taken at any time This doesn t require as much planning and is due to this fact used in the diagnosis of sort 1 diabetes when time is of the essence Type 1 Diabetes Quiz What are the causes of kind 1 diabetes Take this quiz and problem your information of causes, symptoms, prognosis and treatments for this widespread condition, previously known as juvenile diabetes Mantra A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar Care aims at providing reasonably priced, accessible, and professional well being care therapy to folks across the globe .
Tests For Blood Sugar Glucose And Hba1c
Skipping or delaying meals lack of meals, both skipping or delaying meals, could cause the insulin ranges to drop too low after some time.
Dr Ananya Mandal is a doctor by profession, lecturer by vocation and a medical writer by passion She specialized in Clinical Pharmacology after her bachelor s For her, health communication is not only writing complicated critiques for professionals but making medical data understandable and obtainable to the basic public as nicely It s the primary certainly one of its kind to work with insulin pumps, dosing meters, and different diabetes gadgets The sensor is usually worn within the stomach area, precisely the belly.
More and extra people with diabetes are selecting to make use of aflash glucose monitorto check their sugar levels Instead it makes use of a sensor you put on in your skin and you an do the test with out pricking your finger When we eat food, the pancreas goes to work, releasing enzymes that assist to interrupt down food and Symptoms Of Low Blood Sugar hormones that help the body handle the influx of glucose One of these hormones is insulin, and it performs a key position in managing glucose ranges within the blood You can guess that carbohydrate intake and insulin manufacturing are at least partly liable for your blood sugar levels But the record is much longer virtually each way of life alternative you make can have an effect on your blood sugar.
There are a variety of meal planning systems that can be used by the patient with diabetes every has advantages and disadvantages that need to be evaluated to find a way to maximize compliance Two of the most frequently used ones are the exchange system and the carbohydrate What Is Normal Blood Sugar counting system 1Zheng Y, Ley SH, Hu FB Global aetiology and epidemiology of sort 2 diabetes mellitus and its problems In sufferers with classic signs of hyperglycemia , random plasma glucose greater than 200 mg dL can be adequate to diagnose DM In T1DM, there may be cellular mediated, autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells The major histocompatibility complex , also known as human leukocyte antigens , is reported to account for roughly 40 to 50 of the familial aggregation of T1DM.
The solely information she gave me was to change his food plan and get the levels checked again in three months Is that a traditional response or is there one thing else I need to be doing I have no perfect what the numbers mentioned and I m just really confused Having a quantity of meals per day will assist diabetics in sustaining optimal glucose blood ranges.
Changes of intestine microbiota in diabetic nephropathy and its impact on the progression of kidney damage Diabetic retinopathy could cause scars to form behind your eye When the scars pull your retina away from the again of your eye, it s called tractional retinal detachment Insulin injections are given underneath the skin roughly each 12 hours While giving injections could appear daunting, most homeowners could be taught to administer these injections at home quite simply and because of the very small needle measurement, cats are likely to tolerate these injections very nicely Though ideally injections ought to be spaced 12 hours apart, varying injection occasions A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar by 1 2 hours when needed won t adversely affect a cats treatment.
You can work with your doctor to set a personal A1C objective Meeting your A1C goal might help forestall or manage diabetic retinopathy Blood glucose curves are the perfect approach to monitor blood sugar regulation during remedy During a blood glucose curve, the cat s blood sugar shall be checked right earlier than receiving an insulin injection, and then every 1 4 hours throughout the day.
In any case, the result is extra sugar hanging around the bloodstream, making you are feeling like A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar whole crap in the Low Blood Sugar Symptoms brief term and A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar placing your well being at risk in the lengthy run Check the directions for your meter A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar and check strips to search out out what substances may have an effect on A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar the testing accuracy Evaluation of accuracy of ambulatory glucose profile in an outpatient setting .
Improve Vitamin D Levels
in children with type 1 diabetes Safe and appropriate use of insulin and different antihyperglycemic brokers in hospital 35Kutz TL, Roszhart JM, Hale M, Dolan V, Suchomski G, Jaeger C Improving complete look after sufferers with diabetes 28Kikuta K, What Is Normal Blood Sugar Masamune A, Shimosegawa T Impaired glucose tolerance in acute pancreatitis.
Bariatric surgical procedure is another remedy option that s an oblique remedy for diabetes Bariatric surgical procedure is an option if you have Type 2 diabetes, are overweight and considered a good A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar candidate Falling asleep during the day diabetes for this kind of surgical procedure Much improved blood glucose levels are seen in individuals who have lost a significant amount of weight If you ve diabetes, your body isn t in a place to correctly course of and use glucose from the food you eat.
Yourblood sugarneeds to be in the best vary so that you simply can be healthy At least some glucose is important for your muscle, liver, and another cells to use as gas so they can function Many people s glucose won t ever fall under A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar 60, even with extended fasting When you diet or fast, the liver retains your ranges normal by turning fats and muscle into sugar When you ve A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar diabetes, your blood sugar levels could additionally be constantly excessive.
You could have to Does porridge raise blood sugar change recipes but there are so many superior alternatives to virtually any food out there on the web At this time there is not a known official case of cured diabetes, nevertheless with correct action , sort 2 diabetes may be suppressed, however never reverted Gestational diabetes will revert after being pregnant, but may develop into Diabetes Type 2 later in life.
Taking quick motion when blood sugar is above vary might help cut back your risk of well being complications, and if low, hold you safe When it comes to blood sugar levels, nutrition is the main issue impacting them Most meals will not decrease glucose levels, but certain foods have proven they can help control them You What Is Normal Blood Sugar might suppose that blood sugar is simply affected by the amount of sugar, carbohydrates, and fat you eat Vitamins and minerals in your food regimen additionally play a Diet to maintain blood sugar controlling key part in controlling your blood sugars For some individuals, taking A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar insulin shots may be essential A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar to keep glucose levels in check.
It has also been efficacious in combination with pre meal fast appearing insulins in both sort 1 and type 2 diabetes Another important factor in the elevated morbidity in African Americans with diabetes is racial disparities in well being care Thus, SES, age, and access to well being care were not responsible for the discrepancy in quality of care Similarly, a research of US navy veterans with diabetes discovered a discrepancy in care.
This food regimen consists of low calorie, low glycemic index fruits, and vegetables Few of the regular oils that are most likely to disrupt good cholesterol must be changed with healthier alternate options as enlisted beneath Diabetes is defined as a illness during which the physique has an impaired capability to both produce or respond to the hormone insulin.
Treat with 15 grams of rapid acting carbohydrate and re test in quarter hour Repeat therapy as wanted to bring blood sugar within vary Your healthcare provider might provide individualized instructions on when to contact the office If you have two or extra unexpected blood sugars over 250 mg dL, notify your healthcare supplier for instructions The numbers beneath symbolize values in the hyperglycemic vary and require motion to convey levels down to a standard vary.
A meter can let you know what your levels are in about 5 seconds Another option is by taking an oral glucose tolerance check , which takes longer but may also provide extra correct outcomes A person s individual degree will A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar depend on many elements together with how old they are, their ethnicity, their weight and height, and the activity they ve carried out just lately Blood sugar levels can be checked by pricking a finger to get a drop of blood and putting it on a glucose meter.
When ranges are too low, the person could experience hypoglycemia, which is characterised by shakiness, sweating, dizziness, or Low Blood Sugar confusion When blood sugar ranges are too high, the person may experience hyperglycemia, which is characterised as excessive thirst and urination and blurred imaginative and prescient Blood glucose levels may be checked by pricking Advanced level 90 blood sugar maintenance a finger to get a drop of blood and placing it on a glucose meter High blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, is mostly caused by diabetes, which ought to be managed and treated rigorously under a physician s supervision There are, however, lots of simple A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar actions you possibly can take to scale back your blood sugar back to a healthy level.
It has additionally been efficacious in combination with pre meal A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar speedy performing insulins in each kind 1 and sort 2 diabetes Another necessary issue in the increased morbidity in African Americans with diabetes is racial disparities in well being care Thus, SES, age, and access to health care weren t liable for the discrepancy in high quality of care Similarly, a research of US army veterans with diabetes discovered a discrepancy in care.
The glycemic index ranks A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar carbs based mostly on how they have A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar an result on blood sugar ranges Ranging from 0 to a hundred, the size lets you perceive how quickly and how much a certain carbohydrate raises blood sugar ranges These meals are high in fiber, average in fat, and comprise healthy carbs Though easy carbohydrates aren t really helpful for those with high blood pressure, advanced carbohydrates like bananas, oatmeal, and sweet potatoes present necessary nutrients like fiber There are instances the place uncontrolled blood sugar ranges additionally lead to vomiting in some patients As glucose starts to construct up within the bloodstream, it puts strain on the A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar kidneys.
According to the American Diabetes Association, a recent study discovered that listening to loss was twice as widespread in individuals with diabetes versus those who didn t have diabetes Also, the speed of hearing loss A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar in A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar folks with prediabetes was 30 larger compared with those that had regular blood glucose ranges Scientists assume diabetes damages the blood vessels within the inside ear, however extra research is needed.
Alcohol consumption will increase insulin production, inflicting low blood sugar You might discover it easier to determine on the sous vide egg bites over the tender, berry studded cake with Blood sugar of 76 no icing when you re well rested Even partial sleep loss could improve the danger of weight acquire and weight problems , one sugary muffin at a time.
Learn extra about birth control .
What To Do If Blood Sugar Is Over 500
and your health and review a few of the differing kinds out there Review our list of habits that make people age quicker so as to determine and keep away from your individual premature growing older behaviors This Presidents Day, we re taking you through a list of desserts you ll find a way to enjoy, and providing you with suggestions from our dietitian about how to make every one more healthy Learn concerning the impression sugar has on your cholesterol levels and What Is Normal Blood Sugar ways to handle your sugar consumption.
In a diabetic, the glucose in the blood goes up and stays excessive after drinking the sweetened liquid A plasma glucose level of eleven1 mmol L 200 mg dL or larger at two hours after ingesting the syrup and at one other point through the two hour test period confirms the prognosis of diabetes Symptoms of diabetes can develop all of a sudden in previously healthy youngsters or adolescents, or can develop gradually in chubby adults over the age of 40 The traditional signs embody feeling drained and sick, frequent urination, excessive thirst, extreme starvation, and weight loss Type I diabetes, generally referred to as juvenile diabetes, begins most commonly in childhood or adolescence In this form of diabetes, the body produces little or no insulin.
Diabetes of all kinds can result in issues in many parts of the body and improve the danger of dying prematurely In 2012 diabetes was the direct cause of 15 million deaths globally A large proportion of diabetes and its problems can be prevented by a nutritious diet, regular physical activity, sustaining a normal body weight and avoiding tobacco use The body breaks Normal Blood Sugar down the carbohydrates you eat into blood sugar that it uses for energy and insulin is a hormone that the physique must get glucose from the bloodstream into the cells of the physique With the help of insulin therapy and other therapies, everyone can study to handle their condition and stay lengthy, healthy lives Another type of diabetes referred to as gestational diabetes can develop during pregnancy and generally resolves after the baby is What to eat to get your blood sugar down delivered.
But stick with your diabetes administration plan, and you will likely see a optimistic distinction in your A1C whenever you visit your physician Remember to incorporate the carbohydrates from any alcohol Low blood sugar shaky hands you drink in your day by day carbohydrate depend If your blood sugar degree drops below your goal vary, it is generally known as low blood sugar Low blood sugar additionally occurs when you take an excessive amount of insulin or an extra of a glucose lowering treatment that promotes Nettle blood sugar the secretion of insulin by your pancreas.
He had his work featured in reputable A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar publications such as The Huffington Post Other than his ardour for writing, Dr Ahmed spends his time outdoors the hospital at the gym or with a great e book This leads to hyperosmolality, the place the blood has higher concentrations of glucose , salt, and different substances.
Conducted after fasting for eight hours, drinking a high sugar glucose resolution, and waiting two more hours a studying of a minimal of 140 mg dL is considered a sign of prediabetes For optimal health, you need to aim for a two hour glucose of one hundred ten mg dL or lower Exercising prompts your body to burn extra energy than traditional, and, as a result, eat more glucose.
Managing kind 2 diabetes consists of a combine of A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar way of life A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar modifications and medication It s like a mean of your blood glucose over the previous 2 or three months At first, your pancreas makes extra insulin to try to get glucose into your cells But ultimately, it can t keep up, and the glucose builds up in your blood as an alternative Small Steps to Manage Your Blood Sugar Keeping up with Can sudafed raise blood sugar your blood sugar is essential, and there are several small ways you ll be able to help hold it regulated When a fasting person has an extreme amount of glucose within the blood or too much insulin within the blood , they might have insulin resistance.
The composition of age and sex of each group and urban rural ratio have been determined based mostly on China s 2010 national census information17 Parallel random sampling was carried out in rural places A blood glucose degree larger than 180 mg dL one to A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar 2 hours after consuming A blood glucose degree higher than 125 mg dL whereas in the fasting state If you might have any of those risk components, speak to your physician about ways to decrease your danger for diabetes You also can take theDiabetes Risk Testand talk in regards to the results with your physician.
Gestational diabetes could be monitored and handled and, if nicely controlled, these risks are significantly decreased Limbs Blood Sugar Levels are misplaced because of harm, and vascular illness, diabetes and cancer generally necessitate amputation Diabetes mellitus, fasting glucose, and threat of cause specific death 22Schulz LO, Bennett PH, Ravussin E, Kidd JR, Kidd KK, Esparza J, Valencia ME Effects of traditional and western environments on prevalence of kind 2 diabetes in Pima Indians in Mexico and the us Eleven million Canadians reside with diabetes or prediabetes.
Do you may have hassle shedding weight, regardless of how onerous you attempt to shed these undesirable pounds Find out more concerning the weight reduction plateau and what you are capable of do about it From acupuncture to chiropractic treatments and homeopathy to holistic healing, complementary and various medicine is increasing in popularity Read on to study extra about Ayurveda, a healing system that originated in India thousands of years ago Did you realize that menopause can affect your metabolic health, and vice versa Read on to grasp the connection between metabolic well being and menopause, and the way to manage metabolic health during your menopausal journey.
Sometimes infants Is non diabetic low blood sugar bad of mothers with gestational diabetes develop low blood sugar shortly after delivery as a result of their very own insulin production is high Prompt feedings and generally an intravenous glucose solution can return the child s blood sugar stage to normal As a world leader in diabetes care, Abbott is consistently working to ship the very best quality merchandise Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar and unwavering support to our prospects.
Type 2 diabetes was referred to as non insulin dependent diabetes or mature onset diabetes The most acute complication of DM is diabetic ketoacidosis , which generally presents in T1DM This condition is often either as a end result of inadequate dosing, missed doses, or ongoing an infectionIn this situation, the lack of insulin means that tissues are unable to obtain glucose from the bloodstream Compensation for this causes the metabolism of lipids into ketones instead power supply, which causes systemic acidosis, and may be calculated as a excessive anion gap metabolic acidosis The combination of hyperglycemia and ketosis causes diuresis, acidemia, and vomiting resulting in dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities, which can be life threatening.
Your mother American diabetes association blood sugar chart s case is by some means odd as fruit is recommended food for diabetics If your blood sugar is 180 or more, uh, I would go see a doctor Definitely cut out the A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar sweets, and particularly the sodas but actually you need to be controlling carb consumption as a result of carbs are sugar Type 1 diabetes signs are severe and final for a brief while before the illness is identified Type 2 diabetes signs A1c 8 1 Average Blood Sugar seem slowly and are often unrecognizable or nearly absent For kids as much as 6 years of age desired stage earlier than eating is between a hundred mg dL 55 mmol L and 180 mg dL 10 mmol L.
Before sleep values ought to be between one hundred ten mg dL 61 mmol L and 200 mg dL 111 mmol L This content material is offered as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health The NIDDK translates and disseminates analysis findings to extend data and understanding about health What Is A Normal Blood Sugar and illness What Is The Normal Blood Sugar Level amongst sufferers, well being professionals, and the public Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and different experts Hyperglycemia can turn into a medical emergency like DKA and HHS that requires quick intervention by your practitioner or an area emergency department If you might have two blood sugar readings of 300 mg dL or extra, or have blood sugar above your goal vary anything above 180 mg dL for greater than every week, search immediate medical assist.
Hemoglobin A1c Test Hemoglobin A1c or HbA1c is a protein on the floor of red blood cells .
Foot Care For Diabetics
The HbA1c take a look at is used to watch blood sugar ranges in folks with type 1 and kind 2 diabetes over time HbA1c ranges could be affected by insulin use, fasting, glucose intake , or a mixture of these and other factors.